previous Related News articles are stored in the Archived Related News section of this page after the current set of Related News articles, with the latest Related News articles listed first. Related News for Current Release Japanese Medical School Museum Exhibits Vivisection Display on American POWs：(The Japan Time News, 04-04-2015): The Kyushu University in Fukuoka recently […]
2月27日，参观者在侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆内参观。中新社发 泱波 摄(点击图片观看更多 ) 视频：全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日的决定 来源：中央电视台 中新网北京2月27日电 (记者 郭金超 欧阳开宇)十二届全国人大常委会第七次会议27日下午经表决通过了全国人大常委会关于设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日的决定，设立每年12月13日为南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日。 日本帝国主义在侵华战争期间践踏中国领土，大肆屠杀、奸淫、焚烧、掠夺、制造了一系列灭绝人性的惨案，南京大屠杀是其无数暴行中最集中、最突出、最具代表性的一起惨案。 1937年12月13日，侵华日军在中国南京开始实施长达四十多天惨绝人寰的大屠杀，三十多万人惨遭杀戮，制造了震惊中外的南京大屠杀惨案。这是人类文明史上泯灭良知、灭绝人性和践踏文明的暴行。这一公然反国际法的残暴行径，铁证如山，经第二次世界大战后设立的远东国际军事法庭和南京审判战犯军事法庭审判，早有历史结论和法律定论。 设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日，在国家层面举行公祭活动和相关纪念活动，悼念南京大屠杀死难者和所有在日本帝国主义侵华战争期间惨遭日本侵略者杀戮的死难同胞，揭露日本侵略者的战争罪行，牢记日本帝国主义侵略给中国人民和世界人民造成的深重灾难，警醒全世界人民时刻警惕日本军国主义死灰复燃，避免历史悲剧的重演，激发中国人民的爱国主义热情，激励全国各族人民为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而共同奋斗。
本报讯(记者 肖姗) 我国缘何设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日？国家公祭祭奠谁？谁是第一个建议设立国家公祭日的人？……昨天上午，《国家公祭：你应该关注的八个问题》一书首发式在侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆举行。该书以设问并回答的方式，选取围绕国家公祭日公众希望了解的八个相关问题一一作答。 今年12月13日，南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭仪式在南京隆重举行。作为国家公祭日后的第一本普及国家公祭日相关知识的书籍，《国家公祭：你应该关注的八个问题》由新华社江苏分社、侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆、南京出版传媒集团联合出版发行。全书共15万字，分八个章节，以回答公众关心的八个问题为主线，配以大量历史照片与新闻图片，图文并茂地揭秘国家公祭日出台背后的故事，并结合国际国内背景，尤其是中日关系演变，深入分析国家公祭日的影响与作用。 该书选取解答的八个问题分别是：我国缘何设立南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日、国家公祭祭奠谁、30万数字为何不容挑战、日本右翼为何专攻“南京大屠杀”历史、谁是第一个建议设立国家公祭日的人、国家公祭日“身后”哪些群体不应被忘怀、国外公祭如何祭、参与国家公祭你该如何作为等。 侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆馆长朱成山说，该书的独特之处在于，通过新华社记者的视角对相关历史问题进行深入浅出的解读，有助于公众进一步了解相关历史知识，增强历史修养。 昨天上午，《国家公祭：你应该关注的八个问题》一书首发。本报记者 崔晓摄 【编辑:唐云云】
Background History: During the Second Sino-Japanese War (September 18, 1931 - September 2, 1945), the Japanese military inflicted massive and inhumane atrocities in China, as well as other parts of Asia. The number of Chinese killed was about 25-30 million, and millions of Chinese women and girls were raped. This atrocious history included the Nanking Massacre, comfort women (euphemism for sex slaves), biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction, vivisections on live humans, and slave labor. (More information about the Second Sino-Japanese War can be found in the "History Overview" page).
More than seventy years have elapsed since these atrocities, among the most massive and inhumane massacres in the history of mankind. Yet, Japan still has not acknowledged or apologized to the victims. Instead, the Japanese government has continued to try to whitewash this part of history, repeatedly making statements that contradict the few earlier statements expressing acknowledgement and apology. For example, they continue to make statements like "the Nanking Massacre was just the natural consequence of war," "it was fabricated by the Chinese," "comfort women were paid prostitutes," etc. Japanese leaders, including her prime ministers, pay tribute at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo where 14 Class A convicted and executed war-time Japanese criminals are enshrined. This is analogous to the German chancellor paying tribute at a memorial site for Adolf Hitler. This part of history is also not discussed in Japanese textbooks so that generations of Japanese growing up never learned about this part of history.
Origin of Project: This project was initiated in 1990 when Mr. Tong Zeng (童增), a young, concerned and patriotic Chinese, with a master degree in law, investigated various international legal cases and issues regarding compensation related to atrocities committed during a war by one country on the citizens of another country. After finding various precedents of victims of one country receiving compensation from the government of another country who committed the atrocities, he concluded that the Chinese citizens who were victims of Japanese atrocities during the Second Sino-Japanese War have every right to seek compensation from Japan (from the Japanese government or in the case of slave labors, also from the Japanese corporations who used the slave laborers). In particular, he distinguished the case of the Chinese government seeking compensation from Japan and the case of Chinese citizens seeking compensation from Japan. This means that when the Chinese government, as a gesture of good will, waived her right to seek compensation from Japan when the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1972, the Chinese government waived only the right of the Chinese government seeking compensation from Japan. It did not waive the right of Chinese citizens seeking compensation from Japan.
In July 1990 he summarized his findings in a white paper "China Demands Japan to Compensate Atrocity Victims" 《中国要求日本"受害赔偿"刻不容缓》. He sent his white paper to several newspapers in China, but none reported it.
Then in late March 1991 he sent his white paper to the National People's Congress (NPC) which was meeting in Beijing at that time, and he also alerted the press. This time the newspaper "Ming Bao" (明报) in Hong Kong published on March 30, 1991 a short article about it . A couple of days later, he and one of his students Chen Jian (陈健) also distributed copies of his white paper to various delegates on their way to attend the NPC. Several of the NPC delegates liked his proposal and submitted it as an item for discussion at the NPC. Although this issue was not discussed at the 1991 NPC because it was submitted after the deadline for submission for the 1991 NPC, the media coverage of this white paper, especially after the 1992 NPC, ignited a brush fire across the whole country. For an example of a media article in 1992, click here.
Seeking compensation for the atrocities committed by the Japanese military was a long-overdue item for seeking justice and closure that has been buried in the hearts and souls of thousands and thousands of Chinese atrocity victims and their relatives. Thousands of people wrote to Tong Zeng endorsing and thanking him for his proposal and wrote to him providing details of the atrocities that they or their family members had experienced. Within a few years, he had received about 10,000 such letters. This is why this project/website is called "10000 Cries for Justice."
For a description of how this project became a collaborative project between people in China and people in the U.S., see the "About Us" page.
Project Objective and Significance:The objective of the project is to create a digital archive of the written history from the victims crying for justice, and make available to the world these thousands of letters that Mr. Tong received 20+ years ago. This digital archive documenting the first-hand experience of the victims provides powerful evidence to refute all the false claims made by the Japanese government. It provides a powerful tool to learn from history. By finally resolving the long-overdue injustices, it will help to establish genuine friendship between the Japanese people and the Chinese people, and true peace between Japan and China,as well as other countries.
The consequence of not learning from history is that people will follow the same path and history will repeat itself. We don't want this type of history to be repeated anywhere on earth.
* Quote from American/Spanish Philosopher George Santayana
Project Tasks: The project consists of the following tasks:
- Scan the letters and envelopes to create image files.
- Transcribe the Chinese characters of each letter and envelope to get a digital file which will allow searches on the contents.
- To facilitate doing searches on these digitized letters, we create an index file for each letter. The index file contains nine fields: assigned unique ID(also called sequence number) of the letter, type of atrocity, date of event, name(s) of victim(s), location of event, date of letter, name of writer, writer's address, and a short synopsis of the event.
- To make this archive information readable to Chinese who do not understand Simplified Chinese and to people who do not know Chinese, we convert each Simplified Chinese file into a Traditional Chinese file, and translate the Chinese files into English (the initial release will have only about 10% of the letters translated into English).
- Create a naming convention to identify uniquely all these files.
- Develop a public website to allow access to this digital archive of these valuable first-hand letters written by the victims or their relatives. The website has three versions: Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, and English. The Chinese versions and the English version contain basically the same contents (but initially not all the letters will be translated into English), but may contain somewhat different related recent world news or reference material articles, since not all such articles are readily available in both Chinese and English, and may require too much work to translate.
Note: Traditional Chinese will not be included in the initial release of this website.
- To provide some search capabilities to extract certain events or to find statistics associated with different types of atrocities.
Overview of Website Pages: Including the "Site Overview" page, this website has nine pages. Here is a brief description of the contents of these pages:
- "Site Overview" page: Provides a brief description of the origin and objective of this project.
- "About Us" page: Describes how this project became a collaborative project among people in China and in the U.S. Provides a brief description of the main people behind this project, as well as the non-profit educational organization "10000 CRIES FOR JUSTICE" registered in the state of California in the U.S.
- "History Overview" page: Provides a brief overview of the history of atrocities committed by the Japanese military in Asia during the Second Sino-Japanese War (from Sept. 18, 1931 thru Sept 2, 1945).
- "Letters" page: Describes the letters written by the victims or their relatives, including their naming convention and their index files. It also shows 10 sample letters. Since most people do not have time to read thousands, or even hundreds, of letters, reading these 10 sample letters will capture the essence of the letters.
- "Form-Letters" page: Describes the form-letters and their difference from the letters. It describes their naming convention and other characteristics of the form-letters. It also shows several sample form-letters.
- "Related News" page: Contains several recent news from around the world that are relevant to the subject matters of this website.
- "Reference Material" page: Contains a list of reference articles and books that provide more information about the subject matters of this website.
- "Search" page: Describes some search capabilities that can facilitate users finding information and related statistics.For an explanation of how to do searches, click on Search Tutor.
Note: The search capability that is available for "Letters" is initially not available for "Form-Letters". It will be added at the next release.
- "Contact Us" page: Provides contact information for how users can contact us.